Category Archives: Uncategorized

Lawyers Failing the People

It’s not like our society is getting less bureaucratic, less litigious, less in need of legal guidance. And indeed, as Professor Bill Henderson’s number-crunching shows, the spend on business and government legal services went up nearly 20% in the 5 year period between 2007 and 2012.

But consumer spending over that time? It went DOWN by over 10%.

That’s awful. It’s awful for the lawyers who could be more gainfully employed, but it’s really awful for the public. Their legal needs haven’t shrunk by 10%; they’re just choosing to do without legal assistance.

These numbers represent a collective action failure on the part of lawyers, regulators, and legal trade associations. Our industry has carved out a rigid monopoly in providing legal services, but it has clung for far too long to a single way of doing business.

Consumers in 2017 expect transparency, predictability, information, and control when making purchases. Instead, we give them opaque, uncertain, “full scope” representation as the only option. And forget about innovations like ease of purchase, satisfaction guarantees, or non-lawyers providing some routine legal services.

The practice of law isn’t going to shrink its way to relevance in people’s lives. These numbers should be a wake-up call that we need to get serious – about regulatory reform, about embracing innovation, about the extent of the legal monopoly – if we’re going to stave off this escalating crisis in consumer access to justice.

November Notes: Attorney Gets SLAPPed with Fees; California Bar Goes Splitsville

Be Very Sure it’s Defamation Before Suing. A Texas attorney – or former attorney, because he’s now been disbarred – is liable for over $100K in attorney’s fees after unsuccessfully suing a local newspaper for coverage he found less than flattering. As I often point out, “defamation” isn’t “something mean somebody wrote about me.” Defamation requires that what’s written or said be materially false, and usually in ways that actually harm one’s reputation. And even then it often doesn’t make sense to sue (because of cost, hassle, and the Streisand Effect). But it REALLY doesn’t make sense to sue when a) the statements weren’t in fact false, and b) you’re doing so in a state like Texas which has a strong “anti-SLAPP” law that allows the defendant to immediately strike your complaint and get a mandatory attorneys’ fee award.

California Bar To Split in Two.  Big news from the country’s biggest bar: California is splitting in two. No, not the earthquake rupture that would cast LA, SF, etc. into the sea, but rather the decision to break the California State Bar into two pieces. To one side goes all of the mandatory licensing and disciplinary activity; to the other goes all of the hob-knobby trade association activity. It’s a natural split, already long in place in New York, Illinois, and, more recently, the United Kingdom. And it makes a ton of sense. The regulatory piece of the Bar – which is mandated with protecting the public – has always been in tension with the trade association interests of members. It’s far too easy – and tempting – for lawyers to use the levers of industry regulation to protect their monopoly. This divided structure doesn’t completely solve for the problems of self-regulation, but at least it removes one major impediment.

Not Sure About Twitter? Try “Lurking.” Georgia Supreme Court Justice Keith Blackwell, when asked about his twitter habits, noted that while he has an account, he uses it strictly to read information posted by others – he does not tweet. While his reasons for so doing may be grounded in a heightened sense of judicial propriety, this approach can have wider application. For while Twitter is a phenomenal source for breaking news, incisive commentary, cultural ephemera, and humor, interactivity on twitter  . . . isn’t always so hot. You can find yourself arguing with a disguised Russian troll bot, or besieged by basement-dwelling racist troglodytes. Or simply anonymous weirdos possessing no familiarity with logic and reasoned debate. And you get to spend your tame arguing with them – 140 characters at a time. Sure, there are bright sides, too. I’ve engaged with, and even met in real life, smart, thoughtful people on twitter. But if you’re just wading in, starting out as a lurker might be the best bet.

Social Media News and Notes:

Better than nothing: court accepts unsent text as dead man’s last will and testament.

The “can judges ‘friend’ lawyers” question is going all the way to the Florida Supreme Court.

Arf! Can AI rules be created to make intelligent robots act more like service dogs?

October Notes: The Facebook Post that Cost an In-House Lawyer Her Job

In-House Lawyer Fired for Intemperate Facebook Post: Expressing a lack of sympathy for shooting victims based on their perceived political leanings isn’t a good look on anyone. So it’s no surprise that CBS lawyer Hayley Geftman-Gold was unceremoniously fired for posting on Facebook, shortly after the mass shooting at a Las Vegas country music festival, that she was indifferent because “country music fans often are Republican gun toters.” It’s (yet another) example of how the quick-and-informal nature of social media posting can lead to permanent career damage. But should Geftman-Gold’s post also lead to disciplinary sanctions?  The answer is certainly no. Outside of limited circumstances involving their own clients and legal matters, lawyers still have a First Amendment right to express their opinions. But as this instance shows, there’s a lot more than merely legal ethics to keep in mind when thinking about sending out that oh-so-incisive tweet or Facebook post.

No “Excusable Neglect” For Cutting Corners on Anti-Spam Software:  I’ve never been one to get exercised about spam. Modern email clients sort it well, and it’s easy to quickly scan the “junk” file every few days and purge the offending items. But combine an inordinate distaste for spam with law firm frugality and you get an email system that automatically deletes valid and spam email alike – with no safeguards. Which can unhappily lead to important court documents finding their way straight to the memory hole, sight unseen. That’s, uh, bad – and malpractice-worthy. Or as a Florida appellate court put it, in denying a law firm’s request for leave to appeal an award of attorneys’ fees against its client: “Odom & Barlow made a conscious decision to use a defective email system without any safeguards or oversight in order to save money.” Ouch! One part of a lawyer’s duty of technological competence is listening to the experts – and not shining their recommendations to save a few bucks.

Court Doesn’t Buy the “Contract By Tweet” Concept: While some people are content to argue about whether twitter is really just a cesspool of logic-free argument and pet videos, others are trying to use it to cobble together contract claims. Here’s how it works: post your creative ideas, tweet them at actors and movies execs, and then when a movie that plausibly looks like your idea appears, pounce with the contract claim! Alas, as with all too many 1-2-3 PROFIT ideas online, this one has met a brick wall. It turns out that to make a contract claim – even on social media – you’ve got to have, you know, the elements of a contract. Things like “terms,” and “agreement,” and “consideration.” A shocking reminder that the rules applicable in real life still apply online.

Social Media News and Notes:

UN Ambassador Nikki Haley learns that retweets CAN equal endorsements.

Yeah, so it turns out that creating fake court orders to get negative online reviews taken down isn’t such a hot strategy.

And tempting though it might be, it’s best not to create bogus online postings about opposing counsel, either.

August Notes: All About the Judges

Judges: Social Media on Their Minds. As social media gets both more commonplace and mature, it’s natural that even judges will be using the stuff. I mean, it’s not like we’re going to require that newly-minted jurists relinquish all access to cat videos, dank memes, and food photos, right? However, as this discussion with several prolific judicial users of social media shows, the rules of the road for how judges should think about social media issues are still far from being sorted out. Some litigants will parse all corners of a judge’s social media trail, looking for indications of bias – even in areas as innocuous as the accounts a judge follows on twitter. For social media-savvy judges like the Texas Supreme Court’s Don Willett and Georgia Court of Appeals Chief Judge Stephen Dillard, engaging on social media requires a high level of attention: no commenting whatsoever on pending matters, and steering clear of political controversies.

But Even a Judge’s “Friends” Can be Problematic. Most of us know by now that a “friend” on Facebook is not the same as a “friend” in real life. Depending on the standards we choose to use, our Facebook “friends” may include casual acquaintances, business associates, and people we haven’t seen or spoken to in decades. But the unfortunate familiarity of Facebook’s chosen term has caused no end of consternation for judges, who seem to face regular recusal motions because they happen to be Facebook “friends” with counsel appearing before them (here’s the latest example). It’s all part of the continuing inability of the bar to get that social media is simply an extension of things we do in real life. If judges can banter and share canapes with counsel at Bench-and-Bar events, why can’t they be Facebook “friends?”

Blogging Not a Showstopper for Judicial Nominee. As with twitter and Facebook, it was only going to be a matter of time before some blogging lawyers would be up for judgeships. Case in point: Kentucky attorney John Bush, nominated for a seat on the 6th Circuit, who had posted hundreds of political and contentious posts pseudonymously on the blog “Elephants in the Bluegrass.” Among these were posts sympathetic to “birther” claims about Barack Obama and others deeply critical of abortion rights. However, by differentiating between the political nature of his speech as a private citizen and the obligations he would undertake as a federal judge, Bush was able to win over enough votes – he was narrowly confirmed by the Senate in late July.

Social Media News and Notes:

No, says the 9th Circuit, a judge tweeting a news item is NOT grounds for recusal.

Texas judge under fire for venting on Facebook about being “tortured” by counsel.

And litigants? Beware of judges watching YOUR social media activity.

April 2017 Notes: It’s all About “Unmasking” This Month!

Twitter Crushes Unmasking Attempt. If you’ve been following the political news lately, there’s been LOTS of talk about leaks of information and the “unmasking” of the identity of U.S. citizens caught up in government surveillance of foreign spies. But the political unmasking tilt took yet another turn in early April, as the Department of Homeland Security tried to use an administrative summons to force Twitter to reveal the identity of the person behind an anonymous account. The account – @ALT_uscis – was one of many “ALT government” accounts set up after last November’s presidential election. And like many of the other accounts, @ALT_uscis regularly posts content critical of the Trump administration and the agency it spoofs – in this case, the Customs and Immigration Service. Twitter, to its credit, filed a federal lawsuit to quash the summons. After all, there is a strong first amendment protection for anonymous speech, and the use of administrative summons or subpoenas to reveal the identity of anonymous speakers – particularly when such tools are wielded by thin-skinned bureaucrats – is exceptionally threatening to full and robust public expression. Within a day the DHS withdrew the subpoena, showing that at least at some level grownups have asserted authority within the agency. But it shouldn’t have to take a lawsuit and public pressure for government agencies to respect the right of the public to criticize them.

Avvo Unmasking Follow-Up. Back in 2015, Avvo took a similar stance in response to a subpoena from an attorney seeking to unmask the identity of the anonymous author of a negative Avvo review, who the attorney believed was a non-client. That case, decided in favor of the reviewer, established the balancing standard in Washington State by which courts will determine whether to permit discovery under “unmasking subpoenas.” Now, the reviewer has come forward and identified herself, proving that she was a client of the lawyer in question, and noting that she “feels strongly about the need for a consumer to speak the truth about their experience” with an attorney.

It’s Hard to Hide Online. If any of my readers are wondering whether they can reliably stay anonymous online, here’s a fascinating cautionary tale. After FBI Director James Comey mentioned offhand that he had a “secret” Twitter account, Gizmodo reporter Ashley Feinberg took on the challenge of tracking it down. Through some quick detective work and cross-referencing of other accounts, Feinberg zeroed in on a particular twitter account: @ProjectExile7. And by tracking the accounts @ProjectExile7 followed, and the FBI-centric tweets occasionally sent out by the account, she concluded that it was “almost certainly” Comey’s (this conclusion was bolstered by the posting of this meme by @ProjectExile7 right after Feinberg’s story ran). The takeaway? If even the FBI Director can’t stay hidden from a motivated investigator, don’t count on having better luck yourself.

Social Media News and Notes:

Lawyers continue to wring hands about reconciling ethics rules and use of social media.

“Reverse astroturfing:” $34,500 judgment in case of false negative review left for competitor.

Some surprisingly good tips for lawyers experimenting with Facebook advertising.

Credibility in Business and Government

[This post was inspired by an email discussion after my last CLE webinar, “Lawyers & Lies.”]

Prior to the 2016 Presidential election, it wasn’t exactly a secret that Donald Trump is a less-than-effective businessman. Those familiar with how businesses operate and grow know that building a business empire through real estate and one’s gilded name, on the back of inherited wealth, is no marker of an excellent business operator.

The signs were all there: the bankruptcies, the reliance on a small coterie of loyalists and family, the rumors of shady dealings, the repeated stories about screwing over counterparties (often tradespeople and small-scale vendors), and the lack of any business vision other than the simple logic of commercial real estate: leveraging other people’s money and hoping that rents rise and assets inflate fast enough to outpace debt service.

So I doubt that any serious business person voted for Trump on the commonly-held assumption that he would wield his “business acumen” to bring the problems of unruly government to heel. 1 But plenty of people less familiar with business surely bought in to this pipe dream, assuming that Trump’s gold-festooned lifestyle was a proxy for serious mastery of all things business.

It should now be obvious – to  all but the willfully blind – that the assumption of Trump’s business skills has been put soundly and firmly to bed. The failures of operational discipline were apparent from the start, from the disorganized transition to the complete goat rodeo that represented Trump’s first travel ban rollout – an egregious bit of policy that nonetheless could have easily been landed successfully had a defter hand been at the helm. But beyond this lack of operating chops, we are now seeing the impact of another, even more critical form of business currency that Trump seems devoid of: credibility.

Presidents and politicians, even more than business leaders, are notorious for spin, overstatement, and failed predictions. But this doesn’t mean they don’t retain – and rely on – some reservoir of core credibility. That much of what they say, particularly when making statements of fact and important or personal commitments, can be fundamentally trusted.

Trump is something else entirely. In the New York Times yesterday, David Leonhardt offered a good overview of the President’s many, many confabulations. Yet while the man is clearly a liar (in the sense that so many of his untruthful utterances, unlike the spin or failed predictions of other politicians, are clearly intentional), he is also something more: a bullshitter. The bullshitter will lie, certainly. But more fundamentally, the bullshitter doesn’t care about the truth. Whatever he says is whatever he says – it’s just a means to end. He says whatever he needs to say to get to where he wants to be.

And the thing is, being a bullshitter probably worked pretty well in Trump’s sad, shoddy, little business empire. You can shine on lenders, as long as they get paid or you’ve got an escape hatch via bankruptcy. You can stiff your “little guy” vendors, because what are they going to do, sue? And you can take advantage of the star-struck and gullible, because suckers abound when celebrity (even of the tarnished, C-list variety) is around.

But lacking credibility doesn’t work in real business, or – as Trump is learning – in government. First of all is the transparency: people start checking things out. They follow up to see if you did what you said you were going to do. And they call you on your bullshit when you lie or fail to follow through.

Even worse for the bullshitter who finds himself out of his depth is the fact that the loss of credibility makes it really hard to get things done. While our society has lots of contracts, laws, and verification procedures, there are myriad points where we invest – time, money, effort – based on our trust of another person. Imagine if you didn’t trust a counterparty to not retrade or willfully breach an agreement. Would you invest the time to negotiate a deal with them anyway? Of course not. The same goes for government – the bullshitter’s got no ability to cajole, persuade, or incentive. His bullshit has cost him any room to negotiate, because his counterparties don’t believe what he’s saying, and don’t trust that he will meet any commitments he makes. He’s stuck with nothing but punitive measures.

The punitive-and-petulant approach may have worked passably well in the gaudy corridors of Trump Tower. But as our 45th President is discovering, it’s not remotely enough to meet the challenge of running the country. Credibility must come first.

Notes:

  1. Although surely plenty voted for him on the assumption that he would adopt business-friendly policies, either hoping that collateral damage (to democratic institutions, national security, minority rights, etc.) would be minimized or out of a willingness to ignore such concerns. The first part of that seems to be working out so far.

February 2017 Notes: Keeping Your Cool

Airport Lawyers. If early results are any indication, the Trump administration will be keeping lots of lawyers busy. Besides the usual change-of-administration drama, the early days of this go-round saw the middle east travel ban, a poorly-executed executive order that was almost immediately derailed in court. Out of that fiasco – which took effect with no warning – came the inspiring stories of the legions of lawyers who took to the airports to help those who became ensnared by the ban in the midst of their travels. And despite the fact that the travel ban is currently stymied in court, immigration issues – and the need for counsel, often on short notice – are certainly going to continue to loom large. Technology is there to help. Several apps and websites, including “Airport Lawyer” and “Immigration Justice,” have been put together to ensure that travelers caught up in these issues can get matched with resources and volunteer legal counsel.

“Reputation Management” via Court Fraud. I’ve written about this a couple of times already, but developments continue to churn along, and I suspect we have only seen the tip of the iceberg so far. The scheme is simple: file a lawsuit, line up a fake defendant, and get a “settlement” or “judgment” finding that an online review is defamatory. Then use that court-sanctioned result to have the review removed or de-indexed. Except that no one involved had anything to do with writing the review. The latest exposure of this tactic comes from federal district court in Rhode Island, where a judge found fraud on the court in obtaining a phony consent judgment, and ordered the matter submitted to the US Attorney for investigation. I can’t emphasize this enough: if you have hired a reputation management firm to help with your online identity – and especially if you have done so in response to negative online reviews – ask that firm pointedly about the specific tactics they are employing. Because if there’s one thing no lawyer wants to be party to, even inadvertently, it’s fraud on the court.

Work on that Poker Face. Look, no one said that being a lawyer would be easy. It’s one of the only job where even as you are learning and building your competence, there’s someone constantly looking to take advantage of your missteps. One thing we learn as lawyers – besides being assiduous about details, to avoid those missteps – is to maintain our composure, no matter what’s going on. Because let’s face it: getting baited into overreacting is really bad for your clients and your career. And it can easily lead to sanctions or fines, as two attorneys recently found out. Skeptical about the testimony a witness is delivering on the stand? Better to work on some effective cross-examination questions, rather than making exaggerated “gagging noises” in response. And hey, who hasn’t had a combative deposition? But you know, even if things are getting really heated, it’s probably a good idea to stop short of throwing coffee on your opposing counsel.

Briefly:

Why it’s important to make your law blog as “niche” as possible.

At least 26 states have now decreed that lawyers have a duty of technological competence.

GE creates internal “Yelp for Lawyers” to help in-house counsel evaluate outside law firms.

Publishing Article = Not Commercial Speech

Another 11th Circuit case, also involving doctors. Rebecca Tushnet has the details, but it’s another of those relatively-rare cases dealing with the question of whether something that isn’t a straightforward advertisement can be commercial speech. The answer here – applying the slippery 2-or-3 part test (advertising format, promoting a specific product, with economic motive) – was NOPE.

Helpfully, the court also disposes of the oft-raised (but asinine) argument that advertising revenue converts otherwise-editorial content into commercial speech:

Even if Dr. Novella receives some profit for his quasi- journalistic endeavors as a scientific skeptic, the articles themselves, which never propose a commercial transaction, are not commercial speech simply because extraneous advertisements and links for memberships may generate revenue.

UPDATED: Somehow I missed that the lawyer representing the defendant here was none other than my friend, counsel, and First Amendment badass Marc Randazza. Congrats on another great Florida win, Marco (especially the part about getting California anti-SLAPP law applied in a Florida court)!

Florida’s Misguided Attempt to Modify its Lawyer Referral Service Rules

Last Friday, Avvo submitted comments to the Florida Supreme Court in response to the Florida Bar’s proposed changes to the state’s Lawyer Referral Service Rules. You can read our submission here, but here’s the backstory and highlights:

  • This isn’t the first attempt to change the LRS Rules. After the last go-round, the Florida Supreme Court instructed the Bar to go back to the drawing board and create rules that prohibited LRS entities owned by non-lawyers. The court was apparently concerned with the proliferation of such services in Florida, and in particular those that operated with cross-referrals to chiropractors and other medical professionals. 1
  • The Florida Bar apparently concluded that it couldn’t legally limit LRS to those owned only by lawyers. That’s probably right – it’s hard to see how such a limitation would survive first amendment (and antitrust) scrutiny.
  • Instead of going back to the court, the Bar decided to amend the rules. The amendments are not, remotely, what the court asked for. They are also notable for lacking any focus on either consumer harm or benefit. Rather than considering how the rules could enable Floridians to get better access to both legal services and information about legal services, the Bar simply futzed around with its rules.
  • In its futzing, the Bar managed to arrive at a particularly perverse result. The existing LRS rule – designed to protect against a particular type of marketing that is inherently deceptive – has been largely watered down. And, to make matters far worse, it’s now going to apply to virtually every company that lawyers use for marketing.

That means Florida lawyers will need to start gathering diligence materials for marketing providers. Those providers will have to submit annual lists of their Florida participants to the state bar. The ads that such providers run will need to comply with Florida’s picayune advertising rules (and, perhaps, even require pre-approval by Florida’s advertising review committee). This drives several results, none of them good:

  • The Bar is signing itself up for a massive new compliance program. Monitoring “qualifying providers” for compliance and processing all of those annual lists is going to cost the Bar a ton of money and time. Or, more likely, the Bar will simply enforce the rules in a highly haphazard and inconsistent fashion – making it unclear to lawyers and providers alike whether their marketing activities are in compliance with the Bar’s interpretation of its rules.
  • Diligent members of the Florida Bar will be even more reticent to provide consumers with information about legal services, concerned that their marketing providers – many of whom will be national or global companies serving many industries – are not technically in compliance with Florida’s rules.
  • In a similar fashion, the new rules – which attempt, via the comments, to make things like fee-splitting and pay-for-performance marketing per se against the rules (despite, naturally, any evidence that such practices are inherently bad for consumers) – will make it harder for Florida attorneys to get comfortable with innovative attempts to expand access to justice (like Avvo Legal Services).

And of course, the added irony: Florida – like all states – is suffering from an acute crisis where consumers can’t get help with their legal problems. As the Florida Bar itself notes, over 70% of civil court defendants are representing themselves. Help with even routine legal problems is out of reach of the vast majority of consumers. The system is hobbled from both ends. First, by a hidebound profession that can’t see beyond full-scope, gold-plated representation 2 And second, by a regulator so focused on the minutiae of its rules that it can’t see how its meddling is hampering the availability of information and the market for innovative legal services.

It’s not like this issue has been lost on the Florida Supreme Court. Less than two years ago, Chief Justice Jorge Labarga kicked off the Florida Commission on Access to Civil Justice.  Here’s hoping the Court is able to see, where the Bar seemingly cannot, how badly these Rules are dis-serving the needs of Floridians.

 

Notes:

  1. Note that Avvo is *not* a lawyer referral service. Such services are entities that operate in an environment lacking in consumer choice: users are typically sent to whichever attorney has paid the most, bought geographic exclusivity, or is next in the rotation. That’s why many states choose to have more extensive regulation of lawyer referral services than they do of other forms of legal marketing.
  2. And, for many, a burning desire to protect its monopoly at all cost.

On Information Bubbles

I went to college, in the 1980’s, at the University of Oregon. The campus stood out, even among generally-left-wing institutions of higher learning, as a very, very liberal place. And unsurprisingly, I held a lot of very liberal ideas. Now, this wasn’t entirely due to the University. My background could work well as a parody “origin story” for a tie-dyed action hero: conceived during the Summer of Love by very young (and soon to split) parents living in the Haight-Ashbury. Grew up in the woods in rural Oregon, brought up on a lot of permissive and progressive ideas. You get the idea.

However, my mother had always raised me to have an open mind. And so, in the midst of my sophomore year at Oregon, I began reading The National Review and The Economist, in an attempt to gain some alternate perspective on the philosophy and political science classes I was taking.

This didn’t seem like a particularly important step at the time. I just felt – like many a “question authority” youngster – that I might not be getting the full picture from my lefty professors. And thinking back, my reading didn’t really change my mind on much. Sure, I wasn’t down with the socialism silliness that too many of my classmates went in for, but I was on board for a whole lot of progressive ideas. Because while the reading sometimes moderated my views – or even changed my mind – on many more occasions it exposed the shallowness of whatever counter-arguments existed to the material I was learning in class.

In the 30 years since, I’ve tried to retain this habit of mind. I continue to seek out a diversity of points of view, whether in terms of news and analysis or conversational partners. It feels natural, like the only way to really understand the world, and to feel solid in one’s views.

Maybe I’m approaching this too rationally, but how can you feel confident that your views are sound, if all you hear is the echo chamber?

To this point, Keith Lee recently wrote about “choice architecture:” how the choices we make about the information we consume deeply impacts the interpretations of events were are exposed to. Keith’s post calls to mind Scott Alexander’s “I Can Tolerate Anything Except the Outgroup,” which notes (among A LOT of other things) our culture’s descent into tribalism, and how we increasingly surround ourselves with tribes (and the tribal voices of social media) that speak only to our own, narrow, perspectives. We only consume information from news outlets tuned to our bias, to say nothing of perspective – opinion pieces – which also come exclusively from our tribe’s outlets.

This seems odd to me, as I’ve grown up with family members who hold a diversity of views, and I’ve internalized the habit of seeking out contrary opinion. And yet, there’s something to Alexander’s amazement that he cannot, in his circle of friends and acquaintances, find anyone who identifies with traditional conservative/religious notions:

According to Gallup polls, about 46% of Americans are creationists. Not just in the sense of believing God helped guide evolution. I mean they think evolution is a vile atheist lie and God created humans exactly as they exist right now. That’s half the country.

And I don’t have a single one of those people in my social circle. It’s not because I’m deliberately avoiding them; I’m pretty live-and-let-live politically, I wouldn’t ostracize someone just for some weird beliefs. And yet, even though I probably know about a hundred fifty people, I am pretty confident that not one of them is creationist. Odds of this happening by chance? 1/2^150 = 1/10^45 = approximately the chance of picking a particular atom if you are randomly selecting among all the atoms on Earth.

About forty percent of Americans want to ban gay marriage. I think if I really stretch it, maybe ten of my top hundred fifty friends might fall into this group. This is less astronomically unlikely; the odds are a mere one to one hundred quintillion against.

People like to talk about social bubbles, but that doesn’t even begin to cover one hundred quintillion. The only metaphor that seems really appropriate is the bizarre dark matter world.

I live in a Republican congressional district in a state with a Republican governor. The conservatives are definitely out there. They drive on the same roads as I do, live in the same neighborhoods. But they might as well be made of dark matter. I never meet them.

I feel like I inhabit less of a bubble than Alexander does, but only slightly less. Working in technology, in a western coastal city, it’s exceedingly rare to run across people who would hold themselves out as creationists, or inveigh against gay marriage (hell, many people in my circle probably consider me an outlier because I like guns, dislike regulation, and have friends who are Republicans). So even with a purposeful approach to information choice architecture, it’s really hard to avoid getting drawn into a form of limited-perspective monoculture just by virtue of work environment and lived geography.

Short of seeking out radically new activities or joining a church, I’m unlikely to add much viewpoint diversity to my circle. And there’s this as well: much as I like engaging with people who have heterodox views, the signal-to-noise ratio in seeking out such perspectives can be depressingly high. There’s far too much position-staking; not nearly enough willingness to engage with and consider evidence. That can make the investment in avoiding the bubble – particularly with respect to actual humans, as opposed to books and articles – seem hardly worth the return.

Which is a shame, because engaging with different views and defending our own is how we grow and improve. There’s also little question that the rigidity of our “bubbles” exacerbates political polarization. I’d like to think that if we all worked a little harder, and regularly challenged ourselves by drawing from a broader range of information sources, we’d be closer as a culture. Unfortunately, the proliferation of sources and customization online are, if anything, making our bubbles even more insular and permanent.